Digital Exhibition Metadata Element Set (demes), v. 0.9

Introduction

Descriptions of both physical and digital exhibitions are mainly provided for information, communication and dissemination purposes, but there are also lists, catalogues or inventories of exhibitions aiming at including all exhibitions organised or produced by the same organisation, dealing with the same theme, taking place in the same area etc.
In most cases, exhibition descriptions are provided free-text or using non-structured formats. Practice changes across countries and institutions.
The Working Group on Digital Exhibitions would like to suggest a structured metadata format for the description of exhibitions, in order to
- facilitate the discovery of the Digital Exhibitions through search engines, cultural portals or other services,
- support the identification and selection of Digital Exhibitions,
- facilitate data sharing and exchange of information about Digital Exhibitions and
- improve the current descriptive practice through standardization.

Approach

An exhibition typically groups objects (from one to infinite) and context information. Basing on the consideration that digital exhibitions could be seen as a specific type of digital collection, we started from the analysis of metadata sets developed for collection description in order to identify a first set of basic metadata elements suitable for the description of digital exhibitions.
After a survey of international metadata standards for collection description, we identified as our main reference the metadata elements set included in the International Standard Collection Identifier - ISCI (ISO 27730:2012; http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=44293).
This core metadata set is based on theDublin Core Collections Application Profile, (March 2007,available online at http://dublincore.org/groups/collections/collection-application-profile/; summary at: http://dublincore.org/groups/collections/collection-ap-summary/).
Both the Dublin Core Collections Application Profile and the metadata elements set included in the ISCI are cross-domain (transversal to libraries, archives, museums, other cultural organisations) and concern aggregations of objects of any kind, physical, digital, hybrid or virtual: they are not specific for digital collections or for exhibitions.
Having in mind the specificity of the digital exhibitions, and aiming at providing a metadata set suitable for an accurate and comprehensive description, we added to the ISCI set of mandatory and recommended elements some additional elements that we deemed relevant for digital exhibitions. We also eliminated elements that appeared to us redundant in the case of digital exhibitions. Finally, we ranked the descriptive elements as mandatory, recommended and optional (M/R/O), in order to facilitate the use of the scheme at different levels.
Our next step was to test the identified metadata set through the description of some sample digital exhibition in order to check if amendments are needed.

Structure

The information about a digital exhibition is divided into 30 elements grouped into 7 groups bound into one wrapper which is called "demes" and holds the information for a single digital exhibition.

Identification elements

title

identifier

Description elements

description

language

type

created

itemType

itemFormat

audience

accrualPolicy

provenance

Subject elements

subject

spatialCoverage

temporalCoverage

Responsibility elements

publisher

curator

contributor

Access elements

isAccessedVia

requires

Rights elements

rights

rightsHolder

Relation elements

relation

associatedDigitalExhibition

superCollection

subCollection

associatedEvent

associatedPhysicalExhibition

associatedPublication

catalogueOrIndex

associatedDigitalCollection

Elements

The 30 elements as a grouped list. For each element the namespace is: demes. In the description of each element we put as "Reference" our source of inspiration in describing the element.

Identification elements



Element: title
Description
NameTitle
Referencedc:title
DefinitionA title of the digital exhibition
How to recordTitle of the exhibition. In case there is more than one title of the digital exhibition please repeat the element. The language attribute is mandatory
Technical
Tag-nametitle
Attributesxml:lang
RequiredYes
RepeatableYes
M/R/OMandatory


Element: identifier
Description
NameIdentifier
Referencedc:identifier
DefinitionA unique identifier for the digital exhibition
How to recordMight be a persistant url, or an ISCI etc.
Technical
Tag-nameidentifier
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableNo
M/R/ORecommended


Description elements

Element: description
Description
NameDescription
Referencedcterms:abstract
DefinitionA free-text summary description of the digital exhibition.
How to recordRepeat for each language version
Technical
Tag-namedescription
Attributesxml:lang
RequiredYes
RepeatableYes
M/R/OMandatory


Element: language
Description
NameLanguage
Referencedc:language
DefinitionThe language in which the content of the digital exhibition is presented.
How to recordRepeat the element for each language
Technical
Tag-namelanguage
Attributesxml:lang
RequiredYes
RepeatableYes
M/R/OMandatory


Element: type
Description
NameType
Referencedc:type
DefinitionThe nature or genre of the digital exhibition.
How to recordShould be repeated for each type of the digital exhibition
Technical
Tag-nametype
Attributesxml:lang
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: created
Description
NameCreated
Referencedcterms:created
DefinitionDate of creation of the digital exhibition
How to recordThe date of creation of the exhibition should correspond to the moment when the exhibition was made available to the public, rather than to the moment when the concept was outlined.
Technical
Tag-namecreated
Attributes-
RequiredYes
RepeatableNo
M/R/OMandatory


Element: itemType
Description
NameItem Type
Referencecld:itemType
DefinitionType of the items used in the digital exhibition
How to recordReport for example: text, image, video, audio, application, model, ...
Technical
Tag-nameitemType
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: itemFormat
Description
NameItem Format
Referencecld:itemFormat
DefinitionFormat of the items used in the digital exhibition
How to recordEg. JPEG, PDF, ... Repeat for each format
Technical
Tag-nameitemFormat
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: audience
Description
NameAudience
Referencedcterms:audience
DefinitionTarget public of the exhibition
How to recordE.g. General public, Professionals, Researchers, School children, High school students, etc. Repeat for each target public
Technical
Tag-nameaudience
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/ORecommended


Element: accrualPolicy
Description
NameAccrual Policy
Referencedcterms:accrualPolicy
DefinitionA policy governing the addition of items to the digital exhibition.
How to recordE.g. closed (no more increment), active (items are actively sought for addition), passive (items are added only by external agent), partial (only parts of the collection are incremented).
Technical
Tag-nameaccrualPolicy
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableNo
M/R/OOptional


Element: provenance
Description
NameProvenance
Referencedcterms:provenance
DefinitionA statement of any changes in ownership and custody of the digital exhibition since its creation that are significant for its authenticity, integrity and interpretation
How to recordHistorical information that is relevant for authenticity, integrity and interpretation of the collection (digital exhibitions could move across websites or digital services).
Technical
Tag-nameprovenance
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableNo
M/R/OOptional


Subject elements

Element: subject
Description
NameSubject
Referencedc:subject
DefinitionSubject headings and keywords
How to recordRepeat for each subject or keyword
Technical
Tag-namesubject
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/ORecommended


Element: spatialCoverage
Description
NameSpatial Coverage
Referencedcterms:spatial
DefinitionThe spatial (geographic etc.) coverage of the intellectual content of the exhibition (e.g.: Japan for a digital exhibition of Japanese lacks).
How to recordRepeat for each spatial entity
Technical
Tag-namespatialCoverage
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: temporalCoverage
Description
NameTemporal Coverage
Referencedcterms:temporal
DefinitionThe time covered by the intellectual content of the exhibition.
How to recordRepeat for each temporal entity
Technical
Tag-nametemporalCoverage
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Responsibility elements

Element: publisher
Description
NamePublisher
Referencedcterms:publisher
DefinitionThe institution who commissioned the digital exhibition.
How to recordRecord the name of the institution.
Technical
Tag-namepublisher
Attributes-
RequiredYes
RepeatableYes
M/R/OMandatory


Element: curator
Description
NameCurator
Referencedc:creator
DefinitionTo be used for the intellectually responsible, who outlined the concept for the exhibition and curated its development (person, or institution if no personal name is available).
How to recordRecord the name of the person or organisation
Technical
Tag-namecurator
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/ORecommended


Element: contributor
Description
NameContributor
Referencedc:contributor
DefinitionAny entity (person or organisation) contributing to the creation/development of the digital exhibition.
How to recordRecord the name of the person or organisation.
Technical
Tag-namecontributor
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Access elements

Element: isAccessedVia
Description
NameAccess via
Referencecld:isAccessedVia
DefinitionA product or service that provides access to the digital exhibition.
How to recordFor online exhibitions: The URI/URL where you can access the exhibition. Specify the last check date of the url. For exhibitions available as DVD, CD or similar, mention the standard number identifying the product.
Technical
Tag-nameisAccessedVia
Attributes-
RequiredYes
RepeatableYes
M/R/OMandatory


Element: requires
Description
NameTechnical requirements
Referencedcterm:requires
DefinitionSoftware (plug-ins, flash, OS, ...) needed to view the digital exhibition.
How to recordName of required software
Technical
Tag-namerequires
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/ORecommended


Rights elements

Element: rights
Description
NameRights
Referencedc:rights
DefinitionA statement of any rights held in/over the digital exhibition
How to recordUse to mention any specific licences or to give a statement clarifying that the content is fully copyrighted or public domain.
Technical
Tag-namerights
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableNo
M/R/ORecommended


Element: rightsHolder
Description
NameRights Holder
Referencedc:rights
DefinitionPerson or institution who holds the rights related the digital exhibition (as a whole)
How to recordUse to mention the name of the rights holder
Technical
Tag-namerightsHolder
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableNo
M/R/ORecommended
M/R/OOptional


Relation elements

Element: relation
Description
NameRelation
Referencedcterms:replaces, dcterms: isReplacedBy
DefinitionTo relate different versions of the same exhibition for various technical platforms (e.g. same exhibition for mobile phones) or a different, e.g. upgraded, version of the same exhibition.
How to recordID or name of related version.
Technical
Tag-namerelation
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: associatedDigitalExhibition
Description
NameAssociated Digital Exhibition
Referencecld:associatedCollection
DefinitionUse to indicate an exhibition or collection in any way related to the digital exhibition (eg semantically).
How to recordDo not use this field for hierarchical association (described through sub- and super-collection) and versioning (described through Relation).
Technical
Tag-nameassociatedDigitalExhibition
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: superCollection
Description
NameSuper-collection
Referencedcterms:isPartof
DefinitionA collection the digital exhibition is part of.
How to recordReport the name of the super-collection.
Technical
Tag-namesuperCollection
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: subCollection
Description
NameSub-collection
Referencedcterms:hasPart
DefinitionDigital exhibitions that are part of the digital exhibition described.
How to recordReport the name of the sub-collection items.
Technical
Tag-namesubCollection
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: associatedEvent
Description
NameAssociated Event
Referencecld:associatedCollection
DefinitionUse to indicate the relation to an event involving the digital exhibition.
How to recordReport the event including name, location and date.
Technical
Tag-nameassociatedEvent
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: associatedPhysicalExhibition
Description
NameAssociated Physical Exhibition
Referencecld:associatedCollection
DefinitionUse to indicate the relation to a physical exhibition reproduced, fully or in part, by the digital one.
How to recordReport the name of the physical exhibition.
Technical
Tag-nameassociatedPhysicalExhibition
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: associatedPublication
Description
NameAssociated Publication
Referencedcterms:isReferencedBy
DefinitionTo be used for all sorts of publication, online or offline, which point to or are based on the digital exhibition described.
How to recordName or URI/URL of the publication.
Technical
Tag-nameassociatedPublication
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: catalogueOrIndex
Description
NameCatalogue or Index
Referencecld:catalogueOrIndex
DefinitionReference to the online or offline catalogue of the items included in the digital exhibition.
How to recordName and/or URI/URL of the catalogue or index.
Technical
Tag-namecatalogueOrIndex
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional


Element: associatedDigitalCollection
Description
NameAssociated Digital Collection
Referencecld:associatedCollection
DefinitionIf this digital exhibition features objects from a digital collection, please enter the collection information, if possible including a collection identifier.
How to recordName and/or URI/URL of the digital collection.
Technical
Tag-nameassociatedDigitalCollection
Attributes-
RequiredNo
RepeatableYes
M/R/OOptional